# 想要成功可以靠運氣嗎？只能靠你的刻意練習！

Posted by 陳璿丞 on Wednesday, December 28, 2016

## TOC

We named this universal approach “deliberate practice.”

# 有經驗不等於有刻意練習

Research has shown that, generally speaking, once a person reaches that level of “acceptable” performance and automaticity, the additional years of “practice” don’t lead to improvement.

## 有目標的練習

• Without such a goal, there was no way to judge whether the practice session had been a success.
• Purposeful practice is all about putting a bunch of baby steps together to reach a longer-term goal.
• Purposeful practice is focused.
• Purposeful practice involves feedback.

## 離開舒適圈是什麼？

1. Getting out of your comfort zone means trying to do something that you couldn’t do before.
2. If you never push yourself beyond your comfort zone, you will never improve.

It is comfortable again. The changes stop. So to keep the changes happening, you have to keep upping the ante: run farther, run faster, run uphill. If you don’t keep pushing and pushing and pushing some more

# Mental representation

• 書上是這樣翻的：

A mental representation is a mental structure that corresponds to an object, an idea, a collection of information, or anything else, concrete or abstract, that the brain is thinking about.

A key fact about such mental representations is that they are very “domain specific,” that is, they apply only to the skill for which they were developed. We saw this with Steve Faloon: the mental representations he had devised to remember strings of digits did nothing to improve his memory for strings of letters. there is no such thing as developing a general

the key benefit of mental representations lies in how they help us deal with information: understanding and interpreting it, holding it in memory, organizing it, analyzing it, and making decisions with it.

• the more skilled you become, the better your mental representations are, and the better your mental representations are, the more effectively you can practice to hone your skill.
• It’s like a staircase that you climb as you build it. Each step of your ascent puts you in a position to build the next step. Then you build that step, and you’re in a position to build the next one. And so on.

# 成功的快速道路

1. First, there are always objective ways—such as the win/loss of a chess competition
2. Second, these fields tend to be competitive enough that performers have strong incentive to practice and improve.
3. Third, these fields are generally well established, with the relevant skills having been developed over decades or even centuries.
4. fourth, these fields have a subset of performers who also serve as teachers and coaches and who, over time, have developed increasingly sophisticated sets of training techniques that make possible the field’s steadily increasing skill level.

The crucial finding was that there was only one major difference among the three groups. This was the total number of hours that the students had devoted to solitary practice. the best violin students had, on average, spent significantly more time than the better violin students had spent.

to become an excellent violinist requires several thousand hours of practice. We found no shortcuts and no “prodigies” who reached an expert level with relatively little practice.

# 刻意練習可以自己來嗎？

• Deliberate practice requires a teacher who can provide practice activities designed to help a student improve his or her performance.
• Deliberate practice involves well-defined, specific goals and often involves improving some aspect of the target performance;
• Deliberate practice is deliberate, that is, it requires a person’s full attention and conscious actions.

1. If you find that something works, keep doing it; if it doesn’t work, stop.
2. The best approach is almost always to work with a good coach or teacher.

The reality is, however, that all of these things—managing, selling, teamwork—are specialized skills, and unless you are using practice techniques specifically designed to improve those particular skills, trying hard will not get you very far

# 人人都可以成為神奇寶貝大師

The deliberate-practice mindset offers a very different view: anyone can improve, but it requires the right approach.

1. Does it push people to get outside their comfort zones and attempt to do things that are not easy for them?
2. Does it offer immediate feedback on the performance and on what can be done to improve it?
3. Have those who developed the approach identified the best performers in that particular area and determined what sets them apart from everyone else?
4. Is the practice designed to develop the particular skills that experts in the field possess?

## 找一個好的老師

• It is particularly difficult early in the learning process, when your mental representations are still tentative and inaccurate; once you have developed a foundation of solid representations, you work from those to build new and more effective representations on your own.
• No matter how many sessions a week you have with an instructor, most of your effort will be spent practicing by yourself, doing exercises that your teacher has assigned.
• one of the most important things a teacher can do is to help you develop your own mental representations so that you can monitor and correct your own performance.

## 專心學習

• There was focus but no joy.whatever you are doing, focus on it.
• we started a routine, a practice routine, and from then on I really started to practice where it was a consciousaction working towards a specific goal, not just hit balls or putt.
• where much of the practice consists of seemingly mindless, repetitive actions, paying attention performing those actions the right way will lead to greater improvement.

## 取得回饋, 並且修理它(fix it)

they were paying attention to what they got wrong each time and correcting it.

the purpose of the repetition is to figure out where your weaknesses are and focus on getting better in those areas, trying different methods to improve until you find something that works.

what the expert performer can do, fail, figure out why we failed, try again, and repeat—over and over again.

# 我信了，你最好也信

Furthermore, once you assume that something is innate, it automatically becomes something you can’t do anything about: If you don’t have innate musical talent, forget about ever being a good musician. If you don’t have enough willpower, forget about ever taking on something that will require a great deal of hard work. This sort of circular thinking—“The fact that I couldn’t keep practicing indicates that I don’t have enough willpower, which explains why I couldn’t keep practicing”—is

Maintaining the motivation that enables such a regimen has two parts: reasons to keep going and reasons to stop.

• I found that most of them preferred to practice as soon as they got up in the morning.They had set up their schedules so that there was nothing else to do at that time. It was set aside specifically for practice.
• Identifying that period as their practice time created a sense of habit and duty that made it less likely they’d be tempted by something else.which indicates that they made more of an effort to plan their time.
• Good planning can help you avoid many of the things that might lead you to spend less time on practice than you wanted.

The second thing is to limit the length of your practice sessions to about an hour.

Another key motivational factor in deliberate practice is a belief that you can succeed.The power of such belief is so strong that it can even trump reality.

if you stop believing that you can reach a goal, either because you’ve regressed or you’ve plateaued, don’t quit. Make an agreement with yourself that you will do what it takes to get back to where you were or to get beyond the plateau, and then you can quit

1. 早上起來的第一件事就去做
2. 一次一小時左右
3. 相信自己可以，絕對不放棄
4. 找人幫你打氣、找同伴一起學

# 要變強只能有痛苦？

1. 先覺得好玩。先覺得這東西不錯。想要讓小孩學小提琴、鋼琴、畫畫？先讓他們覺得好玩、有趣、想學，是我的興趣。
2. 接下來就會想要好好練習、想要變厲害。這時，讓他們去知道為什麼要學比起如何學來得重要。先有核心信念
3. 這時他們就會有，我想要比其他人厲害、或是覺得這個技能是他們的一部分，這時，他們就會 下定決心

# 再說一次，沒有天才這件事

• Studies done in adults have generally found adult chess players to have no better visuospatial abilities than normal non-chess-playing adults.
• The researchers found, was that the elite players with lower IQs tended to practice more, which improved their chess game to the point that they played better than the high-IQ elite players.

# 現在的你就是你自我預言的產物

The predictions come true: the girl who was told to forget about sports never becomes any good at hitting a tennis ball or kicking a soccer ball; the boy who was told he was tone-deaf never learns to play a musical instrument or to sing well; and the children who were told they were no good at math grow up believing it. The prophecy becomes self-fulfilling.

## 我是老師/父母，我要怎麼教我的小孩？

with each step designed to keep students out of their comfort zone but not so far out that they cannot master that step. Then give plenty of repetition and feedback; the regular cycle of try, fail, get feedback, try again, and so on is

# 結語

But perhaps a better way to see ourselves would be as Homo exercens, or “practicing man,” the species that takes control of its life through practice and makes of itself what it will.

The hallmark of purposeful or deliberate practice is that you try to do something you cannot do—that takes you out of your comfort zone—and that you practice it over and over again, focusing on exactly how you are doing it, where you are falling short, and how you can get better.