刻意練習還不夠,還要刻意休息!

Posted by 陳璿丞 on Monday, October 9, 2017

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rest

Rest: Why You Get More Done When You Work Less

第一次知道這本書, 是某次在 medium 上看到有人寫到關於 work-life balance 的小故事,大意是說,其實現代人說的生活平衡,都是以天為計算單位,但是應該要用一生去平衡的。舉個例來說,不是找一個輕鬆的工作,可以讓家庭和工作平衡;而是有家庭時,重心放在家庭;而等孩子大了,再衝刺自己的事業。這沒有什麼對錯,但值得人深思,接著此文就介紹了這本書,雖然沒有多大的關係。不過書中提到很多關於如何休息,和休息時對大腦的影響:

刻意休息

書中提到了 刻意休息 這個概念。不是只有要刻意練習,刻意工作,而是刻意休息。讓你的身體可以回復、讓你的心智更有產能。我們常常以為休息就是看電視、看手機、找喜歡的事情做。但書中舉了很多科學的實證,告訴你,那不是休息,在你看電視、追劇、滑手機,其實你的大腦和心智也正在運轉著,某些時候,只會讓你更疲倦。

default mode network

[1]

大腦其實休息沒事做的時候有一個內建的 default mode network。有學者發現,在憂鬱症和思覺失調症的患者,這裡會過份活躍、而且難以控制。會不會是因為這些心情不好的人,即使在休息的時候仍然想太多事情?讓大腦的 DMN 太過活躍了。[2]

unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL)

除了心情之外,default mode network 還可能和你的創意力有影響[3]。

these studies suggest that the default mode network is a source of raw creative energy, that the default networks of creative people are organized differently than those of normal people, and that more creative people are better able to tap that energy.

Top performers

高手都不休息?

The top performers actually slept about an hour a day more than the average performers. They didn’t sleep late. They got more sleep because they napped during the day.

錯了,他們都睡好睡滿八小時,才可以讓大腦真正的休息、有好的連結。最近,大家都在討論 刻意練習 的重要,我之前也曾經寫過相關刻意練習的文章,但是一天真正可以刻意練習的時間可能只有三到四個小時,剩下來的,就是需要 刻意休息, 讓你的大腦做好準備,也就是說,刻意休息不夠,你無法做好的刻意練習!你說,”不行,不能休息”,通常最後的結果就是無法持久。要持久的刻意練習,才能打造真功夫。

要怎麼做?

運動

這是老生常談了。但運動的確是刻意休息的一個部分。

Developing and maintaining a morning routine creates space in the day for rest, and makes rest more valuable.

而且最好變成一種習慣,書中還有提到許多的 CEO 們都有良好的運動習慣,習慣怎麼養成? “不要掉鍊子” 就是最好的方式。

Running seems to be particularly effective in stimulating neurogenesis. Scientists have found that mice running on wheels generate twice the number of new neurons in their hippocampus as mice who are sedentary; they are also better able to identify new objects and distinguish similar objects from one another

因此,有科學家就拿慢跑者來研究,發現慢跑的人的表現和想法比沒有運動的人來得好,可以說,有運動的人比較聰明,科學家還用老鼠跑輪子,解剖後,發現腦部有新生區域。

漫步

不不,我不是開玩笑的。別以為晚上公園的散步的老人家是太閒,他們才是刻意休息的高手啊。

I HAVE WALKED MYSELF into my best thoughts,” ~the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.

不是只有大哲學家說漫步可以讓大腦放鬆,還可以讓緊蹦的專注力可以休息。不然彈性疲勞了,就只會適得其反。還有很多像漫步的活動也可以讓大腦放鬆,譬如說園藝、烘飪等活動,可以讓你得到更多的休息。

午睡

The most obvious benefit of napping is that it increases alertness and decreases fatigue.

有時候十分鐘的小休息,可以讓你更放鬆!

如果你有良好的午睡習慣,可以加強你的記憶力。所以,如果是學生的話,中午午休,是有科學實證的。去好好睡一下下再來讀書吧!五分鐘十分鐘就很夠了,如果你說沒時間的話,睡太多也沒有比較記得清楚。

people who had taken a nap before trying to complete the Frustration Tolerance Task were less likely to give up than those who hadn’t napped, were less impulsive, and were better able to handle frustration.

此外,還可以增加你的挫折忍受力,讓你不容易生氣、願意在困難的地方再撐一下,讓你不容易放棄。這些東西都是在 刻意練習 的時候,非常重要的心態。所以在刻意練習之前,一定要有好好地 刻意休息

沒靈感的時候怎麼辦?

常常聽到作家訪談的時候,或是發明家的回憶錄,常有以下的描述,我就是想不出來,只好累得去睡覺,睡醒之後我就想到了!我就可以寫出來,就可以解決難題。本書作者建議,不要只有到難處時才停筆,應該要在有好的進展時,就讓自己休息一下、讓子彈飛一會兒,明日再戰。

Always stop while you are going good and don’t think about it or worry about it until you start to write the next day. That way your subconscious will work on it all the time. But if you think about it consciously or worry about it you will kill it and your brain will be tired before you start.

請睡飽

While you sleep, your brain is busy consolidating memories, repairing physical damage, and generating dreams.

有睡飽才有力氣再戰,此話不假,睡覺不只是短暫的死亡,而是可以讓你的記憶強化、清除腦部廢棄物。此外,一天有 連續 睡上七八個小時, 可以預防失智,

[1] Luo, Y., Kong, F., Qi, S., You, X., & Huang, X. (2015). Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 11(3), 516-524.

[2] Luo, Y., Kong, F., Qi, S., You, X., & Huang, X. (2015). Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 11(3), 516-524.

[3] Li, W., Yang, J., Zhang, Q., Li, G., & Qiu, J. (2016). The Association between Resting Functional Connectivity and Visual Creativity. Scientific Reports, 6, 25395. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep25395


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